Labor unions and a charity on Wednesday accused McDonald’s of avoiding about $1.1 billion in tax between 2009 and 2013 by routing revenue through a Luxembourg unit.

The European Federation of Public Service Unions, the Service Employees International Union and charity War on Want, called on the European Commission to investigate.

A McDonald’s spokeswoman said it had complied with all applicable tax rules, saying: “In addition to paying taxes on profits, we pay significant taxes for employee social contributions, property taxes on real estate, and other taxes as required by law.”

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