Mayor Lori Lightfoot vowed Wednesday to confront the “hard truths of Chicago’s racial history” — by launching a public process to review the fate of 41 statues, plaques and works of art, including those of four former U.S. presidents: Abraham Lincoln, George Washington, Ulysses S. Grant and William McKinley.
Six months ago, Lightfoot ordered two statues of Christopher Columbus “temporarily” removed in the middle of the night after receiving “intelligence that gave us great concern” something bad was about to happen.
At the same time, the mayor argued Chicago statues of Columbus in Grant and Arrigo Parks vandalized repeatedly since the death of George Floyd should not be torn down, but rather used to confront the nation’s history and trigger a “reckoning” that’s long-overdue.
City Hall then launched the Chicago Monuments Project and created an advisory committee to conduct a comprehensive review of more than 500 Chicago statues and monuments, with an eye toward identifying those that were offensive, problematic or not representative of city’s values of equity and justice.
Last month, advisory committee co-chair Jennifer Scott, director and chief curator of the Jane Addams Hull-House Museum, disclosed it had pinpointed 40 statues it deemed problematic.
Reasons for making the list include promoting narratives of white supremacy; presenting an inaccurate or demeaning portrayal of Native Americans; celebrating people with connections to slavery, genocide or racist acts; or “presenting selective, over-simplified, one-sided views of history.”
The project website does not note which criteria might apply to any specific monument or statue.
At the time, Scott did not identify the 41 monuments in question.
On Wednesday, the monuments were identified on a new website — chicagomonuments.org — to launch a public engagement process that will conclude April 1.
Chicagoans were invited to submit feedback and participate in virtual events and one-on-one conversations.
Besides five statutes of Lincoln, others on the list include the General John Logan Monument in Grant Park; the General Philip Henry Sheridan Monument at Belmont and Lake Shore Drive; a statue of Benjamin Franklin in Lincoln Park; the Haymarket Riot Monument/ Police Memorial at 1300 W. Jackson Blvd; the Italo Balbo Monument in Burnham Park; and the Jean Baptiste Beaubien plaque at the Chicago Cultural Center.
One notable monument missing from the list is the controversial statue of Stephen Douglas, which sits atop his tomb in Bronzeville. Last summer, three members of the Illinois Legislative Black Caucus called for the removal of the statue, which they said was “a tribute to a widely known racist and sexist who even staked his presidential platform on the subjugation of any non-white male in America.”
Lightfoot called the project a “powerful opportunity for us to come together as a city to assess the many monuments and memorials across our neighborhoods and communities — to face our history and what and how we memorialize that history.”
“Given the past year and in particular the past summer that made clear history isn’t past, it is essential that residents are a part of this conversation. This project is about more than a single statue or mural, it’s about channeling our city’s dynamic civic energy to permanently memorialize our shared values, history and heritage as Chicagoans in an open and democratic way,” the mayor was quoted as saying in a press release.
The public engagement process is aimed at creating a plan to “erect a series of new monuments that equitably acknowledge Chicago’s shared history,” the mayor’s office said.
“The Chicago Monuments Project Advisory Committee has considered hundreds of the city’s sculptures and plaques in this critically important process,” Cultural Affairs and Special Events Commissioner Mark Kelly, another advisory committee co-chair, was quoted as saying.
“The city’s public art collection is a defining characteristic of Chicago and it should reflect and respect all Chicagoans. The public’s input will now help us evaluate the collection and to commission new works.”
Last summer, hundreds of protesters surrounded the Columbus statue in Grant Park. They attempted to pull the statue down and battled with Chicago police officers, many of whom were injured.
At the time, some people didn’t believe the mayor’s stated motives and proclaimed desire to avoid diverting precious police resources toward downtown protests and away from South Side and West Side neighborhoods struggling to contain gang violence.
They have accused Lightfoot of rewarding the rioters. She strongly disagreed.
“This was about public safety. Anyone who saw the videotapes from a previous Friday night, which saw a peaceful protest hijacked by vigilantes who came there to hurt the police but also other people got hurt in the ensuing chaos [knows better]. This was about public safety, pure and simple,” she said at the time.
The skeptics also included Italian-Americans and other proponents of the Columbus statues removed from Grant Park and Arrigo Park.
They didn’t believe the mayor when she said the statues were “temporarily” moved to a safe place to protect them from further damage.
Lightfoot dismissed those skeptics, as well.
“I said it’s temporary,” the mayor said then.
Here’s the list of the 41 statues that are under review:
- The Alarm in Lincoln Park
- Robert Cavelier de La Salle in Lincoln Park
- Fort Dearborn Massacre in storage
- Bull and Indian Maiden in Garfield Park
- A Signal of Peace in Lincoln Park
- Illinois Centennial Monument in Logan Square Park
- The Republic in Jackson Park
- Tablet dedicated to Jolliet and Marquette on the DuSable Bridge
- Tablet dedicated to Cavelier de La Salle on the DuSable Bridge
- Jacques Marquette-Louis Jolliet Memorial at Marshall and 24th Blvd
- Indian (The Bowman and the Spearman) in Grant Park
- The Defense on the DuSable Bridge
- The Pioneers on the DuSable Bridge
- Discoverers on the DuSable Bridge
- Regeneration on the DuSable Bridge
- Damen Avenue Bridge Marquette Monument, located at 2618 S. Damen
- Christopher Columbus Monument in storage
- Drake Fountain in storage
- Columbus Monument in storage
- Standing Lincoln in Lincoln Park
- General John Logan Monument in Grant Park
- Ulysses S. Grant Monument in Lincoln Park
- General Philip Henry Sheridan in Lake View East
- Seated Lincoln in Grant Park
- Lincoln in Lincoln Square
- Lincoln Rail Splitter in Garfield Park
- Young Lincoln in Senn Park
- Benjamin Franklin in Lincoln Park
- George Washington in Washington Park
- Robert Morris-George Washington-Haym Salomon Monument in Heald Square
- Haymarket Riot Monument/Police Memorial at the Police Training Center, 1300 W. Jackson Blvd
- Leif Ericson in Humboldt Park
- Bust of Melville Fuller in Fuller Park Field House
- Italo Balbo Monument in Burnham Park
- Kinzie Mansion Plaque in storage
- Indian Boundary Lines Plaque near Rogers Avenue and Clark Street
- Marquette Campsite Plague in the Equitable Building Plaza
- Jean Baptiste Beaubien Plaque at the Chicago Cultural Center
- Chicago River Plaque on the DuSable Bridge
- Wilderness, Winter Scene Mural in the Legler Regional Library
- William McKinley Monument in McKinley Park
Contributing: Madeline Kenney