The Electoral College breakdown map, courtesy of C-SPAN.
Click to embiggen
If you thought Tuesday you were voting for the presidential candidate of your choice, think again. Due to a historic quirk in the creation of the United States — some old operating code, as it were — American voters do not chose the president directly, but rather select electors to the Electoral College who do the actual selecting of the president.
It’s a cumbersome system. Each state has the same number of electors as it has representatives in Congress –the House of Representatives and Senate combined. Illinois, for example, has 20 – down one after the last census. They can’t be the elected officials themselves, however. In 48 of the states, whoever wins the popular vote also wins all the electors — only Nebraska and Maine have a proportional system where electoral votes are divided up between the winner and loser.
The system is a relic of an age when travel was difficult and counting ballots even more problematic than it is today. The Founding Fathers wanted to make sure that numerous regional contenders didn’t divide the nation.
Thus whoever wins 270 of the 538 available electoral votes will be inaugurated president on Jan. 20, 2013. But every four years there is talk of scrapping the Electoral College system, though it does have its defenders. Here are the main arguments, pro and con.
Reasons to get rid of it
- 1. A discrepancy between the number of voters and the number of electoral votes creates the possibility of losing the popular vote while winning the Electoral College. Three presidents have been elected on electoral votes while failing to win a majority of voters — Rutherford B. Hayes in 1876, Benjamin Harrison in 1888, and George W. Bush in 2000 — an outcome that undermines the faith Americans have in the legitimacy of the executive branch of government.
- 2. The Electoral College is inherently undemocratic, skewing significance toward smaller, more sparsely populated states. Delaware, with 900,000 residents, has three electoral votes, while Texas, with more than 25 million residents, has 34, which means from an electoral point of view, a vote in Delaware is more than twice as significant — representing 1/300,000th of an electoral vote — than a vote in Texas, representing 1/750,000 of an electoral vote.
- 3. By focusing on assembling 270 electoral votes, candidates ignore “safe” states such as Illinois, where there is no point in fighting for more votes once a majority is reached, since all the electoral votes are already assured. Thus the majority of states, nearly certain to fall one way or another, tend to get ignored in favor of a handful of “swing” states.
- 4. Even if the Electoral College works perfectly, it still introduces unnecessary delay into the system. Give the likelihood of immediate electronic voting in the foreseeable future, having to wait for some mysterious conclave to put its seal of approval on the will of the American people is unnecessary, not only wasting time, but wasting the money required to run the system.
- 5. There is the remote but real possibility of fraudulent electors — members of the Electoral College who refuse to vote the way the results require that they vote. This has happened, and while it has never affected the outcome of a race, it could, and there is no reason to allow the possibility that one individual could perversely negate the will of hundreds of thousands of voters.
Reasons to keep it
- 1. America is change averse and would rather cling to an arcane system than switch to a new one, which might have flaws of its own. If we can’t get rid of the penny, we can’t scrap the Electoral College so why try? To do so, would involve a change in the constitution — Article II, Section I lays out the details of the Electoral College — and whatever benefit isn’t worth the trouble of doing that.
- 2. Without the Electoral College, candidates would be encouraged to treat the country as a whole, and campaign through the national media, or in urban centers where the most people are concentrated. They would never spend time in a place like Ohio, where an evenly divided population means its electoral votes are up for grabs.
- 3. The Electoral College can soften the sting of tight races, which we often see. Thus a candidate who only wins by a tiny percentage of the popular vote can still have a considerable victory in the Electoral College, leading to a greater impression of consensus, which is good for subsequent governing.
- 4. The Electoral College helps direct power toward the states — without it, authority would be even more centralized than it already is.
- 5. If the Electoral College wasn’t scrapped after the debacle of the 2000 elections — which saw one of those fraudulent electors — it’s never going to be.